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palatopharyngeus
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Forward
The palatopharyngeal fold contains the palatopharyngeus muscle.
Anesthetizing the airway for orotracheal intubation involves:
1. spraying lidocaine into the back of the mouth to anesthetize the oropharynx
2. injecting lidocaine into the middle of the palatopharyngeal fold to anesthetize the glossopharyngeal nerve before it gives off branches to the tongue and adjacent pharynx
3. injecting lidocaine into the posterior portion of the thyrohyoid membrane to anesthetize the upper portion of the larynx innervated by the internal laryngeal nerve
4. spraying lidocaine through a catheter passed through the median cricothyroid ligament around the level of the first tracheal ring
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