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gluteal region deep to gluteus maximus
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The superior gluteal nerve (accompanied by its artery and vein) exits the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen superior to piriformis and innervates the lesser gluteal muscles (gluteus medius and gluteus minimis). An injured superior gluteal nerve can be assessed by the Trendelenburg test or by asking the patient to lie on their side and elevate their lower limb against resistance.

The inferior gluteal nerve (accompanied by its the artery and vein) exits the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen inferior to piriformis and innervates the gluteus maximus. To test this nerve the prone patient is asked to flex his/her knee (to eliminate potential conflict from hamstrings and ensure that only the gluteus maximus is acting) and raise his/her thigh off the examining table against resistance, while the examiner palpates the muscle.
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