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gallbladder
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The gall bladder receives innervation from spinal cord segments T7-T9. As a result, pain of the gall bladder is referred to the right 7th through 9th intercostal spaces. If the gall bladder irritates the overlying peritoneum of the diaphragm, pain can also be referred to the right shoulder (via phrenic nerve, C3-C5).

The gallbladder can be palpated at the junction of the transpyloric plane (at level of L1-L2 intervertebral disc) and the linea semilunaris (lateral edge of the rectus abdominis).

To test for Murphy’s sign, push down at the right costal margin where the gall bladder is normally located and ask the patient to inspire. A positive Murphy’s sign is observed if there is an abrupt cessation of inspiration and is indicative of acute gallbladder inflammation.
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