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anterior cruciate ligament
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Forward
The unhappy triad includes injury to the ACL (anterior cruciate ligament), MCL (medial collateral ligament), and the medial meniscus. This can occur with a blow to the lateral aspect of the knee (seen often in football injuries).
One test for ACL injury is the drawer test where the supine patientís knee is flexed at a 90 degree angle and the examiner attempts to pull the tibia forward. If the tibia moves forward relative to the femur significantly, this is a positive anterior drawer sign for the knee and one may suspect ACL damage. Note that a positive anterior drawer sign may also result from a torn PCL (posterior cruciate ligament).
[Note: a better test to assess ACL injury is the Lachman test, which will be mentioned in 2nd year connective tissue course]
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